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Studies and Reports on Impacts to Ground and Surface Waters from Turf Fertilizers




  1. Surface Water

  2. Groundwater

  3. PFAS in Fertilizers

  4. Algal Blooms


1. Surface Water


Tomarken, J.L., Gerstman, M., and Gobler, C.J. “Investigation of fish kills occurring in the Peconic River – Riverhead, N.Y. Spring 2015.” Department of Environmental Conservation (2015). 


Deegan, L.A. et al. “Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss.” Nature 490 (2012) 388-392.

Howarth, R.W. and Marino, R. “Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: Evolving views over three decades” Limnology and Oceanography 51:1 part 2 (2006) 364-376. 


Toos, G. S. et al. “Managing urban runoff in residential neighborhoods: Nitrogen and phosphorus in lawn irrigation driven runoff.” PLoS One. 12:6 (2017). 


Easton, Z. M., & Petrovic, A. M. (2004). "Fertilizer source effect on ground and surface water quality in drainage from turfgrass." Journal of Environmental Quality, 33(2), 645–655.  


Lloyd, S. “Nitrogen load modeling to forty-three sub watersheds of the Peconic Estuary.” The Nature Conservancy (2014). 


Kinney, E., and Valiela, I. “Nitrogen Loading to Great South Bay Management Scenarios (Report on phase 2).” (2011). 

Camargo, J.A. and Alonso, A. “Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment.” Environment International 32 (2006) 831-849. 


Oenema, O., van Liere, L. and Schoumans, O. “Effects of lowering nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in agriculture on the quality of groundwater and surface water in the Netherlands.” Journal of Hydrology 304 (2005) 289-301. 


Howarth, R.W. “Coastal Nitrogen Pollution: A review of sources and trends globally and regionally.” Harmful Algae 8 (2008) 14-20. 


 Savci, S. “An agricultural pollutant: Chemical Fertilizer.” International Journal of Environmental Science and Development 3 (2012) 77-80. 


Carver, R. E., Nelson, N. O., Roozeboom, K. L., Kluitenberg, G. J., Tomlinson, P. J., Kang, Q., & Abel, D. S. (2022). "Cover crop and phosphorus fertilizer management impacts on surface water quality from a no-till corn-soybean rotation." Journal of Environmental Management, 301, 113818.   


Liu, L., Zheng, X., Wei, X., Kai, Z., & Xu, Y. (2021). "Excessive application of chemical fertilizer and organophosphorus pesticides induced total phosphorus loss from planting causing surface water eutrophication." Scientific Reports, 11(1).   


 Maghanga, J.K. et al. “Impact of nitrogen fertilizer application on surface water nitrate levels within a Kenya tea plantation.” Journal of Chemistry (2013). 


Lambert, K.F., and Driscoll, C. “Nitrogen pollution: From the sources to the sea.” Science Links (2003). 


Puckett, L. J., Tesoriero, A. J., & Dubrovsky, N. M. (2010). "Nitrogen contamination of surficial aquifers—a growing legacy." Environmental Science & Technology, 45(3), 839–844. 


2. Groundwater


Lloyd, S., et al. “Modeling nitrogen source loads on the north shore of Long Island.” The Nature Conservancy (2016). 


Wick, K., Heumesser, C., & Schmid, E. (2012). "Groundwater nitrate contamination: Factors and indicators." Journal of Environmental Management, 111, 178–186. 


Easton, Z. M., & Petrovic, A. M. (2004). "Fertilizer source effect on ground and surface water quality in drainage from turfgrass." Journal of Environmental Quality, 33(2), 645–655.  


Schlesinger, W.H. “On the fate of anthropogenic nitrogen.” PNAS 106 (2009) 203-208. 


DeSimone, L. A. (2009). "Quality of water from domestic wells in principal aquifers of the United States, 1991-2004." Scientific Investigations Report. 


Scorca, M.P., and Monti, J. “Estimates of nitrogen loads entering Long Island Sound from ground water and streams on Long Island, New York, 1985-96.” United States Geological Survey (2001). 


Monti, J., and Scorca, M.P. “Trends in nitrogen concentration and nitrogen loads entering the south shore estuary reserve from streams and ground-water discharge in Nassau and Suffolk counties, Long Island, New York, 1952-97.” United States Geological Survey (2003). 


Puckett, L. (1994). "Nonpoint and Point Sources of Nitrogen in Major Watersheds of the United States." 


Tomer, M. D., & Burkart, M. R. (2003). "Long-term effects of nitrogen fertilizer use on ground water nitrate in two small watersheds." Journal of Environmental Quality, 32(6), 2158–2171. 


Schnug, E., & Lottermoser, B. G. (2013). "Fertilizer-derived uranium and its threat to human health." Environmental Science & Technology, 47(6), 2433–2434. 


Marinov, I., & Marinov, A. M. (2014). "A coupled mathematical model to predict the influence of nitrogen fertilization on crop, soil and groundwater quality."  Water Resources Management, 28(15), 5231–5246. 


3. PFAS in Fertilizers


Cui, S., Fu, Y., Zhou, B., Li, J., He, W., Yu, Y., & Yang, J. (2021). "Transfer characteristic of fluorine from atmospheric dry deposition, fertilizers, pesticides, and phosphogypsum into soil." Chemosphere, 278, 130432. 


Ehsan, M. N., Riza, M., Pervez, Md. N., Khyum, M. M., Liang, Y., & Naddeo, V. (2023). "Environmental and health impacts of pfas: Sources, distribution and Sustainable Management in North Carolina (USA). "Science of The Total Environment, 878, 163123. 


Gan, C., Peng, M., Liu, H., & Yang, J. (2022). "Concentration and distribution of metals, total fluorine, per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in vertical soil profiles in industrialized areas." Chemosphere, 302, 134855.

Röhler, K., Haluska, A. A., Susset, B., Liu, B., & Grathwohl, P. (2021). "Long-term behavior of pfas in contaminated agricultural soils in Germany." Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 241, 103812.    


Anderko, L., & Pennea, E. (2020). "Exposures to per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): Potential risks to reproductive and children’s health." Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 50(2), 100760.   


Lohmann, R., Cousins, I. T., DeWitt, J. C., Glüge, J., Goldenman, G., Herzke, D., Lindstrom, A. B., Miller, M. F., Ng, C. A., Patton, S., Scheringer, M., Trier, X., & Wang, Z. (2020). "Are fluoropolymers really of low concern for human and environmental health and separate from other pfas?" Environmental Science & Technology, 54(20), 12820–12828.   


Kwiatkowski, C. F., Andrews, D. Q., Birnbaum, L. S., Bruton, T. A., DeWitt, J. C., Knappe, D. R., Maffini, M. V., Miller, M. F., Pelch, K. E., Reade, A., Soehl, A., Trier, X., Venier, M., Wagner, C. C., Wang, Z., & Blum, A. (2020). "Scientific basis for managing pfas as a chemical class." Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 7(8), 532–543. 


 Zhao, J., Hinton, P., Chen, J., & Jiang, J. (2020). "Causal inference for the effect of environmental chemicals on chronic kidney disease." Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 18, 93–99. 


Ward-Caviness, C. K., Moyer, J., Weaver, A., Devlin, R., & Diaz-Sanchez, D. (2022). "Associations between pfas occurrence and multimorbidity as observed in an electronic health record cohort." Environmental Epidemiology, 6(4). 


Jane L Espartero, L., Yamada, M., Ford, J., Owens, G., Prow, T., & Juhasz, A. (2022). "Health-related toxicity of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Comparison to legacy PFOS and PFOA." Environmental Research, 212, 113431. 


 Stanifer, J. W., Stapleton, H. M., Souma, T., Wittmer, A., Zhao, X., & Boulware, L. E. (2018). "Perfluorinated chemicals as emerging environmental threats to Kidney Health." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 13(10), 1479–1492. 


Brown, J. B., Conder, J. M., Arblaster, J. A., & Higgins, C. P. (2020). "Assessing human health risks from per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (pfas)-impacted vegetable consumption: A tiered modeling approach." Environmental Science & Technology, 54(23), 15202–15214. 


Fenton, S. E., Ducatman, A., Boobis, A., DeWitt, J. C., Lau, C., Ng, C., Smith, J. S., & Roberts, S. M. (2020). "Per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substance toxicity and human health review: Current state of knowledge and strategies for informing future research." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 40(3), 606–630.   


Xu, D., Li, C., Wen, Y., & Liu, W. (2013). "Antioxidant defense system responses and DNA damage of earthworms exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)." Environmental Pollution, 174, 121–127. 


Qian, S., Lu, H., Xiong, T., Zhi, Y., Munoz, G., Zhang, C., Li, Z., Liu, C., Li, W., Wang, X., & He, Q. (2023). "Bioaccumulation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in ferns: Effect of pfas molecular structure and plant root characteristics." Environmental Science & Technology, 57(11), 4443–4453. 


4. Algal Blooms


Bradley, W. G., Borenstein, A. R., Nelson, L. M., Codd, G. A., Rosen, B. H., Stommel, E. W., & Cox, P. A. (2013). "Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?" Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 14(5–6), 325–333. 


Torbick, N., Ziniti, B., Stommel, E., Linder, E., Andrew, A., Caller, T., Haney, J., Bradley, W., Henegan, P. L., & Shi, X. (2017). "Assessing cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms as risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." Neurotoxicity Research, 33(1), 199–212. 


Glibert, P. M., Maranger, R., Sobota, D. J., & Bouwman, L. (2014). "The Haber Bosch–harmful algal bloom (Hb–HAB) link." Environmental Research Letters, 9(10), 105001.  


Lapointe, B. E., Brewton, R. A., Wilking, L. E., & Herren, L. W. (2023). "Fertilizer restrictions are not sufficient to mitigate nutrient pollution and harmful algal blooms in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida." Marine Pollution Bulletin, 193, 115041.  


Glibert, P. M., Maranger, R., Sobota, D. J., & Bouwman, L. (2020). "Further evidence of the haber-bosch—harmful algal bloom (HB-HAB) link and the risk of suggesting HAB control through phosphorus reductions only." Just Enough Nitrogen, 255–282.   


Anderson, D.M. et al. “Harmful algal blooms in eutrophication: Examining linkages from selected coastal regions of the United States.” Harmful Algae 8 (2008) 39-53. 


Heisler, J. et al. “Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms: A scientific consensus.” Harmful Algae 8 (2008) 3-13. 

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